Assignment: Stress And Immunity

Assignment: Stress And Immunity

Assignment: Stress And Immunity

Your written assignment for this module should be a 1-2 page paper (not including title page and reference page) that describes the following:

  • What are the different types of immunities and give an example of each
  • Describe how stress impacts the immunity of a person

You should include a minimum of 3 scholarly references. Include a title page, in-text citations, and a reference page in APA format.

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Despite nearly century of research into various facets of stress, researchers are still unable to agree on proper definition of the term. 
The majority of the studies included in this review simply describe stress as situations that most individuals find stressful, or stressors. 
To classify these stressors, we used Elliot and Eisdorfer’s (1982) taxonomy. 
This taxonomy has the benefit of separating stresses on two crucial dimensions: duration and course (e.g., discrete vs. continuous). 
There are five types of stressors in the taxonomy. 
Laboratory difficulties such as public speaking or mental arithmetic are examples of acute time-limited stresses. 
Short-term naturalistic stresses, such as academic exams, include person facing real-life short-term struggle. 
main event, such as the death of spouse or severe natural disaster, triggers series of linked obstacles in stressful event sequences. 
Even though affected persons may not know when these issues will end, they have strong sense that they will at some point in the future. 
Unlike the other demands we’ve discussed, chronic stressors tend to pervade person’s life, pushing him or her to reconstruct his or her identity or social roles. 
Another characteristic of chronic stressors is their consistency: the person either has no idea when the struggle will cease or is certain it will never end. 
Suffering devastating accident that results in physical impairment, caring for spouse with severe dementia, or being refugee forced out of one’s original country due to conflict are all examples of chronic stressors. 
Distant stressors are traumatic events that occurred in the past but have the potential to continue affecting immune system function due to long-term cognitive and emotional consequences (Baum, Cohen, Hall, 1993). 
Being sexually molested as child, seeing the death of fellow soldier in combat, and being prisoner of war are all examples of distant stresses.
Investigators employ life-event interviews and life-event checklists to capture the overall number of distinct stressors encountered over specific time period, in addition to the existence of tough conditions. 
These assessments can focus on large life events (e.g., getting divorced, going bankrupt) or tiny daily problems, depending on the instrument (e.g., getting speeding ticket, having to clean up mess in the house). 
Judges then code stressor severity using the more advanced instruments based on how the average person in similar biographical circumstances would respond (e.g., S. Cohen et al., 1998; Evans et al., 1995).
lesser number of research enrolled large groups of adults who weren’t having any problems and looked at how their immune responses differed based on their accounts of felt stress, intrusive thoughts, or both. 
Other studies have looked at stressed populations and found wider range of subjective responses. 
This research stems from the belief that people’s bodily responses to stressful situations are highly influenced by their assessments of the situation as well as their cognitive and emotional responses to it (Baum et al., 1993; Frankenhauser, 1975; Tomaka, Blascovich, Kibler, Ernst, 1997).