Discussion: Evidence Base in Design

NURS 6050 Discussion: Evidence Base in Design

Discussion: Evidence Base in Design

The recent abortion ban in Texas sent shockwaves throughout the state and beyond, instilling fear of the repo effect as legislators meddled with a fundamental human right. Women’s right to health care. The law prohibited abortions as early as six weeks and allowed ordinary citizens to sue health-care providers who violated the state’s abortion law (Najmabadi, 2021).

Rep. Judy Chu (D-CA-27) introduced the Women’s Health Protection Act of 2021 to prevent the passage of the outrageous law in California. The bill persuaded Congress to protect individuals’, in this case, women’s, right to make an informed decision to terminate an unwanted pregnancy, as well as the protection of providers involved in performing abortion procedures under standardized protocols (Congress.gov, 2021). The Women’s Health Protection Act bill is currently being reviewed by the Senate, and it has been used to raise public awareness and educate legislators about the impact of anti-abortion laws, the consequences of which have been found through informed evidence to perpetuate decreased access to safe abortions, as evidenced by a review of the literature completed by Espinoza et al. (2020), which showed an increased rate of infection and mortality among 22 million adolescent girls.

Furthermore, rising service costs have made it difficult for women to participate in economic and social development, leaving them vulnerable to socioeconomic exploitation from the opposite sex. Finally, the sharp rise in mental health disorders and health disparities among minority ethnics has been linked to limited access to women’s health services and has continued to impact other preventative vital health services such as screenings, contraception, sexually transmitted disease services, prenatal care, and adaptation services (Congress.gov).

The fourteenth amendment of the U.S. Constitution gives rights to all American citizens, thus protecting a woman’s right to make adequately informed and educated health decisions and abortion being part of them.

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Congress.gov. (2021). H.R.3755 – Women’s Health Protection Act of 2021 . Retrieved from CONGRESS.GOV: https://www.congress.gov/bill/117th-congress/house-bill/3755/text

Espinoza, C., Samandari, G., & Andersen, K. (2020, April). Abortion knowledge, attitudes and experiences among adolescent girls: a review of the literature. Sexual and Reproductive Health Matters, 28(1); PMC7888105. doi: 10.1080/26410397.2020.1744225.

Najmabadi, S. (2021). Gov. Greg Abbott signs into law one of nation’s strictest abortion measures, banning procedure as early as six weeks into a pregnancy. THE TEXAS TRIBUNE.

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Discussion: Evidence Base in Design

Discussion 1: Evidence Base in Design
When politics and medical science collide, there is often considerable controversy. Occasionally, anecdotes or rumor are used to bolster a specific position. Despite

Discussion Evidence Base in Design
Discussion Evidence Base in Design

these and other obstacles, evidence-based techniques are increasingly being used to influence health policy decisions about illness causes, intervention strategies, and societal issues. Consider the introduction of childhood immunizations and the reliance on evidence-based arguments to support their safety.

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In this Discussion, you will identify a recently proposed health policy and share your analysis of the evidence in support of this policy.

            The year, 2020, was characterized by mayhem here and across the landscapes from COVID-19. Isolation was the key to stop the disease, and as America and the rest of the globe were in a mass-frenzy, scared individuals were scared for their lives. Some doctors’ offices were closed, elective surgeries were shut down, and hospitals were open on an emergency basis only at rates not seen for decades. Doctoring as we knew it, was in the form of “telehealth” hardly a replacement for just prior being one-on-one with providers, others a welcoming site. On the receiving end were and continue to be the medical personal including doctors, nurses, technicians, and lab specialists treating the sick. According to (Urdaneta, Stacey, and Sorbello, 2020), greater than “35,000” medical personal with “9200” in the United States was ill by COVID in April of 2020, and “198” of these individuals died from COVID. Front line workers “76.7%” and of those “60.8% were nurses,’’ “50.4%” of these nurses reported symptoms of depression (Urdaneta, Stacey, and Sorbello, 2020). Urdaneta, Stacey, and Sorbello, 2020 noted “71.5%” reported mental distress, “34%” insomnia and at that time one provider from New York attempted suicide.  COVID-19 has taken its taxing toll on the mental health of so many for it does not discriminate against anyone individual. Mental distress has been noted by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIH).


Unmanaged stress combined with physical and emotional fatigue has significant consequences for overall job performance, health, mental wellness, and burnout risk. Providers are no different, for every individual was affected in some way from the COVID-19 restrictions and if you were already had risk factors, COVID-19 only multiplied them with its long, unsettling isolation period. The NIH (2021) recognizes the damage COVID-19 has done to the mental health of so many individuals including professionals. NIH (2020) indicates that with the pandemic individuals go through phrases mentally, and some require much more mental support than others, especially with added stressors of caring for an ill, sickened, or dying individuals. And during a pandemic, these numbers are staggering NIG (2020). Providers were working at a rate not seen in some time, with low staff and low resources initially.  In addition, NIH (2020) suggests supports of economic or social supports applied with coping mechanisms provide the opportunity to lower risks and maximize the chance of a successful recovery.

Health Policy from Congress

The Health Policy from Congress that addresses the above data is S.610 Dr. Lorna Breen Health Care Provider Protection Act congress.gov (n.d.). This policy was presented to Congress this past spring in hopes to reduce and or prevent suicide, burnout, mental and behavioral health ailments among medical personals. This policy has 27 co-sponsors and utilizes the policy tool of capacity-building to introduce this bill Milstead & Short (2019).  The bill was introduced by Dr. Lorna Breen to authorize initiatives to address suicide, mental health, substance use disorders, and burnout amongst healthcare providers in the form of grants and studies congress.gov (n.d.). Congress.gov (n.d.) indicates further that it would also enlist the Center for Disease Control to orchestrate a mass campaign for awareness on mental health and the hindering stigma related to providers with such conditions congress.gov (n.d.). Medical student doctors would also be included in the education to address and prevent mental concerns.

The Association of American Medical Colleges [AAMC] (2021) endorses this bill for the awareness and need of mental health awareness for providers. According to the Dr. Lorna Breen Foundation (2021), it has beyond seventy supporters from within the medical field supporting it. Capacity-Building tools are used to provide data to train or educate or offer technical support. Here Dr. Lorna Breen intends to have the CDC pursue an awareness campaign on mental health related to the stigma on providers Dr. Lorna Breen Foundation (2021). Furthermore, the grants requested would be used for further research on mental health, employee education, peer-support programming, and mental-health treatment Dr. Lorna Breen Foundation (2021).


Association of American Medical Colleges. (2021). AAMC endorses Bill Promoting Physician Mental Health and Well-Being. Retrieved from www.aamc.org

Congress.gov. (n.d.). S.610 – Dr. Lorna Breen Health Care Provider Protection Act.  Retrieved from congress.gov

Dr. Lorna Breen Foundation. (2021). The Dr. Lorna Breen Health Care Provider Protection Act. Retrieved from dr.lornagreen.org

Milstead, J.A., & Short, N. M. (2019). Health policy and politics: A nurse’s guide (6th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning

National Institute of Mental Health. (2020). One Year In: COVID-19 and Mental Health. Retrieved from nimh.nih.gov

Urdaneta, F., Stacey, M., & Sorbello, M. (2020). The Adverse Impact of COVID-19 on Health Care Providers: Time to Start Measuring. Anesthesia & Analgesia, 134(4), e187-e189. doi:10.1313/ANE0000000000005088

To Prepare:

Review the Congress website provided in the Resources and identify one recent (within the past 5 years) proposed health policy.
Review the health policy you identified and reflect on the background and development of this health policy.
Post a description of the health policy you selected and a brief background for the problem or issue being addressed. Explain whether you believe there is an evidence base to support the proposed policy and explain why. Be specific and provide examples.

Evidence Base in Design

Health Awareness

The healthcare setting of the 21st century can be characterized by the intensifying dialogue between clinical experts and the population. More specifically, the bilateral nature of the medical relations is increasingly recognized by the professional community. In this regard, people are to be taught the key principles of personal and public health through effective community outreach and education. This idea is key to building a stronger, healthier community that is ready to cooperate with medical professionals in terms of prevention and eradication of major health risks. This matter has attracted the attention of the nation’s policy-makers and appeared on the agenda of Congress. Representative Maloney introduced a resolution to designate the month of August as “National Health Care Awareness Month” (“H.Res.590”, 2021). This policy is related to the necessity of profound cooperation between healthcare professionals and the public.

Public health is a complex idea that does not depend exclusively on the actions of medical workers and policymakers. In fact, it is well established that the prevention of a disease is always more effective than any treatment. This way, each individual has the ability to contribute to the public and individual health by being responsible in terms of lifestyle. Shaman and Knowlton (2018) concur, referring to the community outreach as one of the pillars of sustainable society. In other words, medical professionals and the population should remain aligned to help each other build healthy communities. The recent COVID-19 pandemic is an excellent example of such a situation. It has become an unprecedented challenge for the healthcare system, as doctors and nurses have been working under the immense stress to mitigate the consequences of the outbreak. Under these circumstances, it has been essential for the public to avoid the unnecessary damage and alleviate the stress on the system (Li et al., 2020). For this purpose, communities should be educated on healthy behavior and prevention techniques, which aligns with healthcare awareness and health literacy.


H.Res.590. (2021, August 8). U.S. Congress. https://www.congress.gov/bill/117th-congress/house-resolution/590

Li, W., Liao, J., & Liu, E. (2020). Public health education for parents during the outbreak of COVID-19: A rapid review. Annals of Translational Medicine, 8(10). https://dx.doi.org/10.21037%2Fatm-20-3312

Shaman, J., & Knowlton, K. (2018). The need for climate and health education. American Journal of Public Health, 108(2), 66-67. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2017.304045

Reply Post

Great post! Public health is essential to the healthcare delivery system. As you stated in your post, public health is complex (Hayes, 2021). Based on two polls regarding public health before and after the Covid-19 pandemic, most Americans believe that public health agencies supported by the government continue to be important in community health (Sellers et al., 2021). Public health is the responsibility of the government to help prevent disease, promote healthy behaviors and lifestyles, and prepare and respond to healthcare issues (Bailey, 2021). Prevention and healthy behaviors and lifestyles begin with education. According to the World Health Organization (WHO) (2021), schools contribute to the well-being of the community through education and health. Schools can educate students regarding healthy lifestyle habits and behaviors specifically through dietary, physical, and chronic disease management (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), n.d.). By having health policies and procedures in academic education for children and adolescents, healthy students can incorporate health awareness to become healthy adults (CDC, n.d.).

Health promotion is a way to promote health awareness to improve health and manage symptoms of chronic health conditions (Tsai et al., 2021). In a Health-Awareness-Strengthening Lifestyle (HSAL) program study focusing on exercise, nutrition, and health responsibility, participants showed a marked improvement in long-term personal health awareness, physical health, and quality of life (Tsai et al., 2021). Due to health awareness being essential to overall health and well-being, the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP) in coordination with the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) have created National Health Observances (NHOs) which are nationally recognized health observance periods throughout the year to help raise awareness regarding health conditions, topics, and diseases (Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP), n.d.). By promoting awareness and education to improve health conditions, individuals can learn ways to promote healthy lifestyles and behaviors to help increase the overall health of the public.


Bailey, S. R. (2021, February 10). Pandemic exposure dire need to rebuild public health infrastructure. American Medical Association. https://www.ama-assn.org/leadership/pandemic-exposes-dire-need-rebuild-public-health-infrastructure

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (n.d.). About CDC healthy schools. Retrieved October 11, 2021, from https://www.cdc.gov/healthyschools/about.htm

Hayes, D. (2021, October 7). Re: Main post re: Discussion – week 7 [Discussion post]. Walden University Blackboard. https://class.waldenu.edu/webapps/discussionboard/do/message?action=list_messages&course_id=_16875421_1&forum_id=_9349766_1&discussion_board_entry&conf_id=_4066999_1&message_id=_120351161_1

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP). (n.d.). National health observances. Retrieved October 11, 2021, from https://www.health.gov/news/category/national-health-observances

Sellers, K., Leider, J. P., Gollust, S., Gendelman, M., & Castrucci, B. (2021). Public health across partisan lines: What has changed since the onset of covid-19. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice27(1), S5. https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1097/PHH.0000000000001293

Tsai, C. L., Lin, Y. W., Hsu, H. C., Lou, M. L, Lane, H. Y. Tu, C. H., & Ma, W. F. (2021). Effects of the health-awareness-strengthening lifestyle program in a randomized trial of young adults with an at-risk mental state. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health18(4). https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.3390/ijerph18041959

World Health Organization (WHO). (2021, June 22). UNESCO and WHO urge countries to make every school a health-promoting school.