NUR 514 Benchmark Electronic Health Record Implementation Paper

NUR 514 Benchmark Electronic Health Record Implementation Paper

NUR 514 Benchmark Electronic Health Record Implementation Paper

The utilization of electronic health records (EHRs) is increasingly gaining prominence in the current health care systems around the world. The utilization of EHRs has enormously shaped how health care is provided in various ways. For instance, health care organizations can use the EHRs meaningfully to get the data, organize, scrutinize, and present that data to the clinicians to help them make an informed patient care decision.  Besides, the adoption of EHRs has also led to massive reductions in health care costs. This cost reduction is due to advancement in the effectiveness of the decision making process and healthcare delivery. Moreover, EHRs adoption has improved the delivery of safe, high quality health care that creates positive patient experience and outcomes of the diverse patient populations (King, Patel, Jamoom & Furukawa, 2014). Therefore, it is against the backdrop of the EHRs that this paper seeks to explore the roles of registered nurse in variety of situations associated with the utilization of EHRs.

Database to Track Opportunities for Care Improvement Information

Essentially, apart from the expected function of the health information system which is to enable advanced efficiencies, it should also enable tracking of opportunities in healthcare (Sharfstein, 2015). Consequently, there is need for varied kinds of information to facilitate trailing of health care opportunities. Among the information needed include patient satisfaction. The HER systems ought to ease access to the data on the degree of patient satisfaction with the health care provided. On their side, the patients are also expected to give their opinions regarding the areas of improvement to enable the organization to determine areas to improve on for better services. The patient satisfaction information is crucial because it enables the organization to learn more on how it can improve services to facilitate better services that can realize diverse patient needs.

On the other hand, the information on the patient appointment process is also required on the database. This information should always be made accessible to the target population. The kinds of information that may be contained in the details of the appointment process include the period it takes to get the actual appointment after requesting for an appointment. Besides, the database on patient appointment process should contain information that indicates the efficiency of reminders of the appointment dates including reminders in situations where a patient misses the appointment or when the appointment is canceled. Essentially, such information is vital to assess how the organization responds to its consumers. That is, the organization can implement such information to enhance excellent services for its clients from booking for appointment, the appointments, reminders, and illustrating the rationale for cancelling or missing appointments.

Moreover, the other kind of information required in the database for tracking health care opportunities is the information about quality of treatment that is provided to patients. Ordinarily, the kind of care provided to patients should be effective, quality, and safe. Such kind of care should enhance patient outcomes by ensuring safety, quick response to medication, cost-friendly, and reduces negative impacts. As such, it is imperative for the database to include information regarding prescription, result tracking, and referral tracking to enhance quality of treatment.

Role of Informatics in Capturing the Above Data

Fundamentally, health informatics is vital in capturing the above data by enabling platforms where healthcare providers and patients can exchange crucial health care information to help in advancing the outcomes of healthcare. The health information can also be shared with other interdisciplinary departments, thus, it enables collaboration in delivery of health care services. Through health informatics, it is possible to have shared decision making with patients since patients are also required to be involved in their health care decisions. Moreover, health informatics is crucial in capturing the above data by helping in assessing health care opportunities. On the other side, health informatics also avails opportunities to reduce errors while using gathered data. Operationally, databases are equipped with standard information that are established to guide the construal of every category of data and its repercussion in health healthcare, thus, enhancing the meaningful use of the data collected.

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Systems and Staff Needed in the Design and Implementation Process and Team

The selection of system primarily depends on the organizational specific needs. Nonetheless, it is recommended that the system selection should mostly be influenced by need to enhance flexibility and facilitate ease in utilization by clinicians. The system should foster ease of interaction between the patient and the health care provider sans impeding the nature of communication between the patient and the health care provider. Essentially, EHR characterizes one such system. As such, the system identified should be both insightful and easy to learn by the users. Making the system simple to use and easy to learn is vital in ensuring the system effectiveness in providing the required functions.

According to Bullard (2016), the implementation of the health informatics system definitely requires significant input of the health care staff to succeed. Therefore, the necessary staff that would be required to design and implement this system consists of nurses, administrative staff, IT experts, physicians, medical assistants, and system user’s leader. The inputs of these staff are vital in the design process because they inform the features of the system that should be incorporated. Besides, the staff are also required at the implementation stage to help in establishing the system’s usability and ease of use. Further, the personnel are required to collaborate during the entire process from the design to evaluation of the system to realize the success of the project.

Professional, Ethical, and Regulatory Standards that must be Incorporated into Design and Implementation of the System

It is necessary to consider aspects of ethical, professional, and regulatory standards while designing and implementing EHRs (Ben-Assuli, 2015). Regarding the professionalism aspect, the American Nurses Association insists that the information technologies used in health care should ensure both safety and positive outcomes in patients. Besides, the data accuracy and proficiency should also be considered by ensuring that it is collected, stored, scrutinized, and reported appropriately. Similarly, the ethical aspects in the EHRs data should also be considered. The ethical principles encompass several areas such as patient privacy, confidentiality, and security of health data. The other core responsibility of health care providers includes designing, execution, and assessment of system utilization within the health care settings.

On the other hand, it is important to integrate regulatory standards in the EHRs design and implementation. For instance, the system’s implementation team should consider the security standards of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (HITECH) and HIPAA (Kiel, Ciamacco & Steines, 2016). HIPAA provides that health care organizations have the obligation to safeguard patients’ health data. Besides, the privacy, security, and confidentiality requirements should be taken into account to foster effective and efficient use of electronic health data. The HITECH Act details stern measures that apply to the requirements under the HIPAA standards. Fundamentally, the Act adds the legal responsibility for failing to comply with HIPAA standards in relation to the use and security of electronic health data.

How EHR Team Will Ensure that All Order Sets Are Part of the New Record

To ensure that all order sets are part of the new record, it is recommended that team tasked with implementing the EHRs should apply the four-step process. The four steps include designing a governance system for the structure of the order set. This step is characterized by creating a governance body that ensures effective communication and decision making for the coordination, customization, and integration of the project. The governance body may include any member of the staff and they are tasked with different responsibilities such as oversight provision, maintaining effective communication with other stakeholders, and determining the use of metrics. The second step is planning and assessing the order set’s maintenance and workflow. This stage is characterized by development of the prospects, objectives, and deadlines of the order sets. Besides, the obtainable order sets are perfected and integrated into the new systems.

The third stage encompasses establishing and effectively utilizing a style guide that ensure reliability. The style guide basically entails the formulation of an approach capable of enhancing the reliability of various aspects such as design, order set sequencing, naming, size threshold, and types of evidence. Essentially, reliability here is crucial because it fosters search, use, retrieval of data, and standardization. Finally, the fourth step is advocating for practices that make order sets more efficient for application in the clinical environment. This stage is mostly focused on staff engagement whereby the employees involved in the utilization of order sets are asked to appraise the system. They may employ the use of different approaches such as meetings to create awareness in the organization. Involving health care professionals is vital because it ensures that the system is effectively adopted in the organization.

How to Communicate Changes in the Plan

The organization can communicate the design and adoption of the EHRs using the official communication mechanisms. These mechanisms may include one-on-one dialogue, posters, emails, and organizing meetings with staff to brief about the progress, requirements, and any changes. These official communication approaches are vital in ensuring that clinicians are made aware of EHRs system requirements, thus, helping in reducing the possibility of resistance by the staff to accept EHRs changes (Sinsky, Beasley, Simmons & Baron, 2014). To ensure success, the communication should be updated and provided in good time to enable the staff to be well versed with it. The management should also ensure that the organization environment is conducive for open and free communication. The employees should be free to provide their perspectives on the design and execution of the proposed EHRs system.

Measures and Steps to Evaluate the Success of EHR Implementation from Staff Setting and Patient’s Perspective

Fundamentally, numerous measures can be used to determine the success of implementation of the EHRs (Yen et al., 2017). The common measures may include incidences of medical errors, the process of adoption, changes in the organizational culture, efficiency in the infrastructure and network, and the level of patient contentment with the system. On the other hand, the steps that can be used in the EHRs evaluation process include adequate preparation, determining the return on investment, examining the data quality and input, monitoring the efficiency of the system, and evaluating the quality of care the EHRs adoption. The profitability of the EHRs system to the patients and the organization can be determined by performing a cost-benefit analysis. Consequently, the efficiency of the EHRs can be assessed by relying on the patient data entirely. Similarly, the quality of healthcare can be gauged through surveys on patient satisfaction. On the other hand, the level of health care providers’ satisfaction and adoption process of the EHRs can be equally determined by the survey. Finally, the scope of error should be established to help in examining the quality of data input. In a nutshell, by looking into these techniques, it is likely to appraise the EHRs implementation.

Leadership Skills and Theories

Undeniably, the EHRs implementation process is intricate and marred with enormous challenges. As such, effective leadership skills are necessary for the success of the implementation process (Aldosari, 2017). On that note, the leadership skills needed in this case include excellent communication skills, effective critical thinking and problem-solving techniques, outstanding technical abilities, and project management. Some aspects of skills such as open communication are crucial because they ensure that stakeholders are kept informed on the progress throughout the implementation process. Creating an environment of open communication also ensures that stakeholders voice their concerns and possibly suggest ways in which the outcomes can be improved. During this process, critical thinking and problem-solving skills are necessary to effectively manage the diverse team members. Notably, successful EHR design and implementation require staff with diverse expertise, experience, and viewpoints. However, this diversity increases the possibility of contradictions, thus, the need for a people with outstanding experience in problem solving. The team members also need project management skills because the EHR design and implementation often require the establishment and appraisal of different deliverables. The technical skills on the other hand are vital to ease the understanding of the technical terms related to the information technology used in EHR implementation.

Regarding the necessary leadership theories, the transformative leadership and anticipatory leadership theories are appropriate for EHRs implementation and design process. The transformative leadership style is majorly concerned with ensuring that people collaborate to achieve a goal in question. In this context, the leaders have the obligation to lead the employees by motivating, stimulating, and moving them to discover the essence of innovation in performing their roles and responsibilities. On the other hand, the participatory leadership style is appropriate in this context because it is characterized by inspiring stakeholders to play their role in the EHRs implementation project to realize success. The style requires that the leader should empower the implementation team to achieve the desired goals.

Conclusion

It has been established that EHRs are vital in enhancing quality of care and also recognizing different opportunities in the health care system. Through the EHR system, it is possible to identify developments that can be used meaningfully to increase the benefits for the organization. Moreover, the input of teamwork is vital for design and implementation of the EHRs. That is, there is need to integrate views from different stakeholders including nurses, IT experts, and doctors. Most importantly, it is imperative to incorporate effective leadership skills and theories to help in the design and implementation of EHRs.

References

Aldosari, B. (2017). Causes of EHR projects stalling or failing: A study of EHR projects in Saudi Arabia. Computers in biology and medicine, 91, 372-381.

Ben-Assuli, O. (2015). Electronic health records, adoption, quality of care, legal and privacy issues and their implementation in emergency departments. Health policy, 119(3), 287-297.

Bullard, K. L. (2016). Cost-effective staffing for an EHR implementation. Nursing Economics, 34(2), 72.

Kiel, J. M., Ciamacco, F. A., & Steines, B. T. (2016). Privacy and data security: HIPAA and HITECH. In Healthcare information management systems (pp. 437-449). Springer, Cham.

King, J., Patel, V., Jamoom, E. W., & Furukawa, M. F. (2014). Clinical benefits of electronic health record use: national findings. Health services research, 49(1pt2), 392-404.

Sharfstein, J. M. (2015). Using health care data to track and improve public health. Jama, 313(20), 2012-2013.

Sinsky, C. A., Beasley, J. W., Simmons, G. E., & Baron, R. J. (2014). Electronic health records: design, implementation, and policy for higher-value primary care. Annals of internal medicine, 160(10), 727-728.

Yen, P. Y., McAlearney, A. S., Sieck, C. J., Hefner, J. L., & Huerta, T. R. (2017). Health information technology (HIT) adaptation: refocusing on the journey to successful HIT implementation. JMIR medical informatics, 5(3), e28

One of the most effective approaches to improve quality treatment and patient outcomes is through health informatics. When health care practitioners have access to complete and accurate information, patients obtain better medical care. Many studies show that electronic health records (EHRs) can improve disease diagnosis and reduce and eliminate medical errors, resulting in better patient outcomes (Hansen et al., 2019). One of the most important parts of providing excellent care and enhancing patient happiness is implementing an electronic health records system in a health care facility. The advantages of EHRs as a kind of health informatics are numerous. Based on this, the research investigates the role of nurse practitioners in various situations while installing an EHR system in their facilities.

Description:

One way informatics can be especially valuable is in capturing data to inspire improvements and quality change in practice. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) collects data related to adverse events and safety concerns. If you are working within a practice setting to implement a new electronic health record (EHR) system, this is just one of the many considerations your team would need to plan for during the rollout process.

Also Read: How the role of advanced registered nurse transformed over time

In a paper of 1,500-1,750 words, discuss the following:

1. Consider an opportunity for tracking care improvement. What key information would be needed in the database? Example: Time lapse from medication order documented in the EHR to delivery of medication to the patient for the cardiology service.
2. Describe the role informatics plays in the ability to capture this data.

Role of Informatics in Capturing the Data

In order for the system to be built, the aforementioned data must be collected using informatics. Informatics allows for the collection, organization, and storage of data. An informatics specialist ensures that all healthcare data is properly organized and accessible. When it comes to health information, accessibility is critical. Informatics also deals with data from a variety of sources. Patient care decisions are made using data analysis (Kalsy et al., 2018). Informatics also aids in the standardization of system procedures. Standardization makes a company’s operations run more smoothly and efficiently, with fewer delays and waste. Standardization improves the efficiency of an organization’s processes (Chung et al., 2016; Sharma et al., 2020). As a result, the only way to achieve system effectiveness is to optimize nursing informatics knowledge.

What type of project management strategies and methodologies can be implemented to support informatics initiatives to help improve quality within the clinical practice?
3. Discuss which systems and staff members would need to be involved in the design and implementation process. What is the role of the advanced registered nurse in promoting evidence-based practice and leading quality and performance improvement initiatives within this setting?

4. Outline strategies for implementing the new EHR proposal. Consider communication changes, transitioning to the new EHR, and managing resources (human, fiscal, and health care resources).
5. Discuss what professional, ethical, and regulatory standards must be incorporated into the design and implementation of the system.
6. Describe the measures and steps you would take to evaluate the success of the EHR implementation from a staff, setting, and patient perspective to measure effectiveness and ensure continuous quality improvement in practice?
7. Explain what leadership skills and theories would be needed to facilitate collaboration with the interprofessional team and provide evidence-based, patient-centered care?

Complete the “APA Writing Checklist” to ensure that your paper adheres to APA style and formatting criteria and general guidelines for academic writing. Include the completed checklist as an appendix at the end of your paper.

You are required to cite five to 10 sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria and nursing content.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. A link to the LopesWrite technical support articles is located in Course Materials if you need assistance.

Benchmark Information

This benchmark assignment assesses the following programmatic competencies:

MBA-MSN; MSN-Nursing Education; MSN Acute Care Nurse Practitioner-Adult-Gerontology; MSN Family Nurse Practitioner; MSN-Health Informatics; MSN-Health Care Quality and Patient Safety; MSN-Leadership in Health Care Systems; MSN-Public Health Nursing

2.3: Develop leadership skills to collaborate on interprofessional teams in the provision of evidence-based, patient-centered care.

5.2: Apply professional, ethical, and regulatory standards of practice in the provision of safe, effective health care.

Attachments

Topic 8 DQ 1

Description:

Open and clear communication is critical for the effective functioning of the interprofessional team and the delivery of safe patient care. Discuss the way communication technologies can enhance coordination of care by interprofessional teams. Be sure to discuss a specific communication technology in your response.

Topic 8 DQ 2

Description:

Virtual care and telehealth technologies have the capability to greatly expand access to quality health care. Discuss some benefits and drawbacks of virtual care/telehealth, particularly related to the collaboration and coordination of care and the role of the advanced registered nurse.

Topic 8: Interprofessionalism and Interrelationships in Informatics and Information Systems

Description

Objectives:

1. Analyze the role of the advanced registered nurse in promoting evidence-based practice and leading quality and performance improvement initiatives.
2. Analyze quality standards and performance measures related to the use of informatics for continuous quality improvement in practice settings.
3. Discuss project management strategies and methodologies for implementing health care informatics initiatives that improve quality within clinical practice.

Study Materials

Nursing Informatics and the Foundation of Knowledge

Description:

Read Chapters 16 and 20 in Nursing Informatics and the Foundation of Knowledge.

Health IT

Description:

Explore the HealthIT.gov website.

Artificial Intelligence Research: The Utility and Design of a Relational Database System

Description:

Read “Artificial Intelligence Research: The Utility and Design of a Relational Database System,” by Diling, from
Advances in Radiation Oncology (2020).

Application of Project Management Tools and Techniques to Support Nursing Intervention Research
Description:

Read “Application of Project Management Tools and Techniques to Support Nursing Intervention Research,” by Rew, Cauvin, Cengiz, Pretorius, and Johnson, from Nursing Outlook (2020).

How Data Can Save Lives: Informatics for Health 2017

Description:

Read “How Data Can Save Lives: Informatics for Health 2017,” by Cookson, from BMC Series Blog (2017), located on the BioMed Central website.

Electronic Health Record (EHR) System Testing Plan

Description:

Read “Electronic Health Record (EHR) System Testing Plan,” located on the HealthIT.gov website.

EHR Testing: Specifics and Best Practices

Description:

Read “EHR Testing: Specifics and Best Practices,” by Mikhailau (2019), located on the Health IT Outcomes website.

Health IT Standards

Description:

Read “Health IT Standards,” located on the HealthIT.gov website.

Perspectives of Healthcare Practitioners: An Exploration of Interprofessional Communication Using Electronic Medical Records

Description:

Read “Perspectives of Healthcare Practitioners: An Exploration of Interprofessional Communication Using Electronic Medical Records,” by Bardach, Real, and Bardach, from Journal of Interprofessional Care (2017).

Best Practices for Health Informatician Involvement in Interprofessional Health Care Teams

Description:

Read “Best Practices for Health Informatician Involvement in Interprofessional Health Care Teams,” by Holden, Binkheder, Patel, and Viernes, from Applied Clinical Informatics (2018).

Impact of Information and Communication Technology on Nursing Care: Results of an Overview of Systematic Reviews
Description:

Read “Impact of Information and Communication Technology on Nursing Care: Results of an Overview of Systematic Reviews,” by Rouleau et al., from Journal of Medical Internet Research(2017).

Top 10 Telehealth Benefits and Challenges Concerning Hospitals

Description:

Read “Top 10 Telehealth Benefits and Challenges Concerning Hospitals,” from Delabano (2020), located on the Access website.

Perspectives of Nurses Toward Telehealth Efficacy and Quality of Health Care: Pilot Study

Description:

Read “Perspectives of Nurses Toward Telehealth Efficacy and Quality of Health Care: Pilot Study,” by Bashir and Bastola, from JMIR Medical Informatics (2018).

NUR 514 Benchmark Electronic Health Record Implementation Paper

An electronic health record (EHR) refers to an electronic form of the traditional patient’s medical file kept by the health provider over time. It contains information from administrative and clinical encounters between patients and their health providers during patient care. The EHR also supports other patient care-related activities through interfaces, such as evidence-based decision support, outcomes reporting, and quality management (Schopf et al., 2019). This paper aims to discuss components of designing and implementing the EHR, the professional, ethical, and regulatory standards that should be incorporated, and leadership skills needed for collaboration of the interprofessional teams.

Key Information Needed in the Database to Track Opportunities for Care Improvement

The EHR support providers make better decisions and improve patient care quality. It achieves this by improving the accuracy and clarity of medical information, which reduces the occurrence of medical errors (Schopf et al., 2019). The EHR also makes health data available and easily accessible, reduces duplication of services, reduces treatment delays, and empowers patients to make better health decisions. Patient information is needed in the EHR database to help identify opportunities for patient

NUR 514 Benchmark Electronic Health Record Implementation Paper Online

improvement. The key patient information includes demographics, current medical problems, past medical and surgical history, medications, vital signs, immunization history, progress notes, laboratory results, and imaging reports (Schopf et al., 2019). The information can predict a patient outcome which helps to provide appropriate interventions to achieve the best possible outcomes (Schopf et al., 2019). It can also identify risk factors for a disease or complications and guide providers to take prior preventive interventions.

Role Informatics Plays in the Ability to Capture This Data

Informatics is concerned with computational systems, particularly those involving data storage and retrieval. Informatics’ role in facilitating data capture in EHR databases includes developing tools with clinical and operational applications that assist health organizations in capturing health information in EHRs to advance medical care (Aguirre et al., 2019). Informatics assists in the organization of patient data collected from a variety of devices and systems, including electronic medical records, patient portals, health tracking devices, and diagnostic systems (Aguirre et al., 2019). Informatics collects data from all of these devices, which is typically in multiple formats, and converts it to a single format that is stored in the database. Database management systems, for example, have programming interface applications that transmit connections between databases and are used to process complex health data across multiple platforms.

The implementation of the EHR will necessitate the handling of a wide range of medical information in a variety of medical settings. As a result, it will be critical to include a variety of systems that will convert information in real-time and on demand. Documentation, billing, and reimbursement systems, as well as E-prescribing and report generation systems, will be required in the EHR. The documentation system will make electronic charting easier and information more organized and accessible to practitioners and patients (Aguirre et al., 2019). The billing and reimbursement system will make it easier to pay for health services and receive reimbursement from insurance companies. The E-prescribing system will aid in the tracking of prescribed medications, the evaluation of medications for allergies, side effects, and interactions, and the ability of clinicians to make quick medication decisions for patients (Aguirre et al., 2019). Furthermore, the report generation system will allow providers to create reports based on specific data such as demographics, medication, and procedures.

The EHR team will be made up of key internal stakeholders as well as external consultants. A project manager, application analyst, application developer, QA Test Engineer, physician, nurse, billing advocate, and super-users will make up the team. The team leader will be the project manager, who will be responsible for keeping the team focused on the project and timelines, as well as dealing with user issues (Aguirre et al., 2019). Data migration and cleansing will be the responsibility of the application analyst, while system customization will be the responsibility of the application developer. The QA Test Engineer is in charge of system testing and performance. Physician, nurse, and billing advocates will represent physicians, nurses, and billing departments, respectively, and will provide training, data, and testing advice (Aguirre et al., 2019). Lastly, the super-users will be the early adopters for the EHR implementation training programs.

Professional, Ethical, and Regulatory Standards That Must Be Incorporated Into the Design and Implementation of the System

Professional standards that must be incorporated in the EHR design and implementation include completing a risk analysis of the system, encrypting electronic health information, and obtaining a HIPAA-compliant business associate agreement. According to Lee (2017), system users must be advised to report when data breaches occur immediately. Ethical standards must be incorporated by ensuring that patient health information is protected, including billing information, claims processing, enrollment status, diagnostic notes, and clinic visit notes (Lee, 2017). Ethical standards that must be incorporated in the implementation include adhering to patient confidentiality laws such as the Directory information rule, Treating physician rule. Social media rule and Business Associate Agreement rule. Regulatory standards must be integrated by complying with the HIPAA and HITECH regulations (Lee, 2017). The design and implementation team will ensure that HIPAA and HITECH regulations are followed during EHR software development, including its design, programming, and distribution.  

Measures and Steps to Evaluate the Success of the EHR Implementation

The success of the EHR implementation will be measured from the staff, setting, and patient perspective, which will help identify improvement areas. To evaluate EHR implementation success from the staff perspective, I will conduct a survey to measure health providers’ satisfaction with the EHR (Aguirre et al., 2019). In the survey, I will ask them to rate how the EHR implementation has eased healthcare delivery, such as access to patient information, evidence-based decisions, and documentation. The EHR’s success in the healthcare setting will be measured by analyzing data error rates to evaluate how the EHR has improved data input and quality (Aguirre et al., 2019). I will also conduct return on investment (ROI) calculations to measure the EHR’s profitability. Furthermore, the EHR’s success will be measured by surveying patients’ satisfaction with the quality of care. I will also measure patients’ wait times to assess if providers can process patients promptly.

One way informatics can be especially valuable is in capturing data to inspire improvements and quality change in practice. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) collects data related to adverse events and safety concerns. If you are working within a practice setting to implement a new electronic health record (EHR) system, this is just one of the many considerations your team would need to plan for during the rollout process.

NUR 514 Benchmark – Electronic Health Record Implementation Paper INSTRUCTIONS

In a paper of 1,250-1,500 words, address the following questions related to the advanced registered nurse’s role during this type of scenario:

  • What key information would be needed in the database that would allow you to track opportunities for care improvement?
  • What role does informatics play in the ability to capture this data?
  • Which systems and staff members would need to be involved in the design and implementation process and team?
  • What professional, ethical, and regulatory standards must be incorporated into the design and implementation of the system?
  • How would the EHR team ensure that all order sets are part of the new record?
  • How would you communicate the changes, including any kind of transition plan?
  • What measures and steps would you take to evaluate the success of the EHR implementation from a staff, setting, and patient perspective?
  • What leadership skills and theories would facilitate collaboration with the interprofessional team and provide evidence-based, patient-centered care?

You are required to cite five to 10 sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria and nursing content.

Prepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. An abstract is not required.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite. Refer to the LopesWrite Technical Support articles for assistance.

This benchmark assignment assesses the following programmatic competencies:

2.3:        Develop leadership skills to collaborate on interprofessional teams in the provision of evidence-based, patient-centered care.

5.2:     Apply professional, ethical, and regulatory standards of practice in the provision of safe, effective health care.

An order set is a collection of orders that standardize and expedite the ordering process for a specific clinical case. Standardized and up-to-date order sets facilitate the use of clinical decision support (CDS) at the point of care (Yang, Kang & Lee, 2016). Using small groups of clinicians with multidisciplinary representation to curate order sets based on clinical guidelines, organizational policies, and expert opinion, the EHR team can ensure that all order sets are part of the new record (Yang et al., 2016). The group should be in charge of authorizing, reviewing, and updating Clinical Ordered Sets in the new EHR. The EHR team can also develop a clinical content strategy that incorporates best clinical practices as well as the organization’s standards with data content sources (Yang et al., 2016). Furthermore, the EHR team can create a process that identifies and replaces obsolete content in order sets that may have a negative impact on patient safety and care quality.

Super-users and internal memos would be used to inform the rest of the staff about the new EHR. The super-users will receive extensive training on all aspects of the EHR system so that they can easily understand and respond to questions about the EHR from staff (Aguirre et al., 2019). They will communicate with the staff in person during organizational meetings and CME programs. They will educate the staff on the EHR’s components and benefits in healthcare delivery. Internal memos will inform staff of any changes to the EHR system and will outline the implementation process.

How the EHR Team Would Ensure That All Order Sets Are Part of the New Record
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A discussion of how the EHR team would ensure that all order sets are part of the new record is not included.
A discussion of how the EHR team would ensure that all order sets are part of the new record is present, but it lacks detail or is incomplete.
A discussion of how the EHR team would ensure that all order sets are part of the new record is present.
A discussion of how the EHR team would ensure that all order sets are part of the new record is clearly provided and well developed.
A comprehensive discussion of how the EHR team would ensure that all order sets are part of the new record is thoroughly developed with supporting details.

Communication of the Changes, Including Any Kind of Transition Plan
5.0%
A discussion of how to communicate the changes, including any kind of transition plan, is not included.
A discussion of how to communicate the changes, including any kind of transition plan, is present, but it lacks detail or is incomplete.
A discussion of how to communicate the changes, including any kind of transition plan, is present.
A discussion of how to communicate the changes, including any kind of transition plan, is clearly provided and well developed.
A comprehensive discussion of how to communicate the changes, including any kind of transition plan, is thoroughly developed with supporting details.

Measures and Steps to Evaluate the Success of the EHR Implementation
5.0%
A discussion of measures and steps to evaluate the success of the EHR implementation is not included.
A discussion of measures and steps to evaluate the success of the EHR implementation is present, but it lacks detail or is incomplete.
A discussion of measures and steps to evaluate the success of the EHR implementation is present.
A discussion of measures and steps to evaluate the success of the EHR implementation is clearly provided and well developed.
A comprehensive discussion of measures and steps to evaluate the success of the EHR implementation is thoroughly developed with supporting details.

Leadership Skills, Theories, and Styles to Employ for Collaboration on Interprofessional Teams Participating in the Legislative Process and Providing Evidence-Based, Patient-Centered Care (2.3)
10.0%
A discussion of leadership skills, theories, and styles to employ for collaboration on interprofessional teams participating in the legislative process and providing evidence-based, patient-centered care is not included.
A discussion of leadership skills, theories, and styles to employ for collaboration on interprofessional teams participating in the legislative process and providing evidence-based, patient-centered care is present, but it lacks detail or is incomplete.
A discussion of leadership skills, theories, and styles to employ for collaboration on interprofessional teams participating in the legislative process and providing evidence-based, patient-centered care is present.
A discussion of leadership skills, theories, and styles to employ for collaboration on interprofessional teams participating in the legislative process and providing evidence-based, patient-centered care is clearly provided and well developed.
A comprehensive discussion of leadership skills, theories, and styles to employ for collaboration on interprofessional teams participating in the legislative process and providing evidence-based, patient-centered care is thoroughly developed with supporting details.
Required Sources
5.0%
Sources are not included.
Number of required sources is only partially met.
Number of required sources is met, but sources are outdated or inappropriate.
Number of required sources is met. Sources are current, but not all sources are appropriate for the assignment criteria and nursing content.
Number of required resources is met. Sources are current, and appropriate for the assignment criteria and nursing content.
Organization and Effectiveness
20.0%
Thesis Development and Purpose
7.0%
Paper lacks any discernible overall purpose or organizing claim.
Thesis is insufficiently developed or vague. Purpose is not clear.
Thesis is apparent and appropriate to purpose.
Thesis is clear and forecasts the development of the paper. Thesis is descriptive and reflective of the arguments and appropriate to the purpose.
Thesis is comprehensive and contains the essence of the paper. Thesis statement makes the purpose of the paper clear.
Argument Logic and Construction
8.0%
Statement of purpose is not justified by the conclusion. The conclusion does not support the claim made. Argument is incoherent and uses noncredible sources.
Sufficient justification of claims is lacking. Argument lacks consistent unity. There are obvious flaws in the logic. Some sources have questionable credibility.
Argument is orderly, but may have a few inconsistencies. The argument presents minimal justification of claims. Argument logically, but not thoroughly, supports the purpose. Sources used are credible. Introduction and conclusion bracket the thesis.
Argument shows logical progressions. Techniques of argumentation are evident. There is a smooth progression of claims from introduction to conclusion. Most sources are authoritative.
Clear and convincing argument that presents a persuasive claim in a distinctive and compelling manner. All sources are authoritative.

Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use)
5.0%
Surface errors are pervasive enough that they impede communication of meaning. Inappropriate word choice or sentence construction is used.
Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors distract the reader. Inconsistencies in language choice (register) or word choice are present. Sentence structure is correct but not varied.
Some mechanical errors or typos are present, but they are not overly distracting to the reader. Correct and varied sentence structure and audience-appropriate language are employed.
Prose is largely free of mechanical errors, although a few may be present. The writer uses a variety of effective sentence structures and figures of speech.
Writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English.

Format
10.0%
Paper Format (Use of appropriate style for the major and assignment)
5.0%
Template is not used appropriately or documentation format is rarely followed correctly.
Template is used, but some elements are missing or mistaken; lack of control with formatting is apparent.
Template is used, and formatting is correct, although some minor errors may be present.
Template is fully used; There are virtually no errors in formatting style.
All format elements are correct.

Documentation of Sources (citations, footnotes, references, bibliography, etc., as appropriate to assignment and style)
5.0%
Sources are not documented.
Documentation of sources is inconsistent or incorrect, as appropriate to assignment and style, with numerous formatting errors.
Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, although some formatting errors may be present.
Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is mostly correct.
Sources are completely and correctly documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is free of error.

Topic 8 DQ 1

Open and clear communication is critical for the effective functioning of the interprofessional team and the delivery of safe patient care. Discuss the way communication technologies can enhance coordination of care by interprofessional teams. Be sure to discuss a specific communication technology in your response.

Re: Topic 8 DQ 1
Medicine is a team sport, and communication is the foundation of collaboration. Communication technologies enable members of the care team to coordinate with one another, making collaboration easier and care delivery more effective. One communication technology that can be effective is Spectralink phones with nurse call. We use these at my facility, and while we don’t have the latest and greatest models of phones—still using those old brick Nokias!—the system is efficient and promotes quick and easy communication for enhanced patient care. Every member of the patient care team carries a phone with a unique intra-hospital number. As the nurse, I am easily able to call anybody from my respiratory therapist to my provider to my charge nurse and everybody in between. At the same time, our phones are equipped with Nurse Call which wirelessly connects them not only to our patient rooms but to our patient monitors. This way we can not only communicate with other team members, but we can easily get alarm alerts to our phones when our babies are having apnea-bradycardia-desaturation events, or when a parent calls from the room.

Not only does this spectralink system foster increased communication, it also works to fulfil The Joint Commission’s patient safety goal from 2016 to use alarms safely, including ensuring that alarms are heard and responded to on time (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2018). With the alarms wirelessly transmitted to our phones, we are able to receive our alarms anywhere on the unit with our phone on our hip. We do not need to be continuously watching a centralized monitor or sit at the bedside. This solves one problem but potentially creates another—alarm fatigue—but any technology brings with it a host of implications.

McGonigle, D., & Mastrian, K. G. (2018). Nursing informatic and the foundation of knowledge (4th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Topic 8 DQ 2

Virtual care and telehealth technologies have the capability to greatly expand access to quality health care. Discuss some benefits and drawbacks of virtual care/telehealth particularly related to the collaboration and coordination of care and the role of the advanced registered nurse.

Re: Topic 8 DQ 2
The terms telehealth or telemedicine, encompass real-time, audio-video communication tools that connect providers and patients in different locations; store-and-forward technologies that collect images and data that can be transmitted and interpreted later, and remote patient monitoring tools such as home blood pressure monitors (Balestra, 2018). Rules that define and regulate telehealth are evolving and vary greatly across states, so much that health care groups are issuing different guidelines about the standard of care that applies in telehealth encounters.

Distance and travel time between patients and care providers can limit access to care. Telemedicine can overcome geographic barriers to healthcare, especially for specialized providers. Telemedicine can be particularly beneficial for patients in medically underserved communities and those in rural geographical locations where clinician shortages exist. Telemedicine can improve the quality of care for patients with both medical and mental health conditions. With telemedicine, patients had fewer hospital admissions and readmissions, spent fewer days in the hospital, and were more engaged in their healthcare (Care Innovations, n.d.). For nurse practitioners (NP) who deal with patients in a variety of settings, telehealth can help improve healthcare delivery to underserved communities.

Telemedicine can increase efficiency of care delivery, reduce expenses of caring for patients or transporting to another location, and can even keep patients out of the hospital. A strong doctor-patient relationship is the foundation for high-quality patient care and reducing health care costs. Telemedicine should support, not replace, traditional care delivery. With telemedicine care providers can continue to care for patients in-person while still providing the flexibility and convenience of seeing patients remotely for follow up visits, check-ups, and education when appropriate or necessary. Telemedicine makes it easier and more convenient for patient to stay healthy and engaged in their health care (Care Innovations, n.d.). Patients love the convenience, flexibility and real-time care with their providers. For providers, telemedicine can improve job satisfaction by making it easier to meet the patients. Providers can use telemedicine to make it easier to balance their work and family life.

While telemedicine promises to grow rapidly, there are still some technical and practical problems for healthcare providers. Restructuring IT staff responsibilities and purchasing equipment takes time and costs money. Training is crucial to build the effective telemedicine program. All-staff and physicians need to be trained on the new systems. In cases where patients are using an on-demand telemedicine service, they are connected with a random healthcare provider, care continuity suffers. A patient’s primary care provider may not have access to records from those other visits and end up with an incomplete history for the patient. This increases the risk that a doctor won’t know a patient’s history or have notes about care routines (Bull, Dewar, Malvey, & Szalma, 2016). Because reduced care continuity can decrease care quality, telemedicine providers must apply sound data solutions to maintain adequate and accessible patient records. As more healthcare providers adopt telehealth to use with their own patients, especially during the current pandemic, care continuity will increase. Many providers worry about technical problems associated with telemedicine. Poor broadband connections could lead to possible patient mismanagement. Healthcare laws, reimbursement policies, and privacy protection rules struggle to keep up with this fast-growing industry. As a healthcare provider, best practices should still be followed when approaching telemedicine.

The rules and regulations addressing NP requirements differ from state to state, and this variability creates confusion for NPs involved in the practice of telehealth. Some of the most critical issues include; Licenses and credentialing. Typically, a nurse practitioner is licenses only in the state in which he or she practices medicine (Balestra, 2018). Telemedicine technology allows NPs to assess patients remotely and in a variety of settings, and could include patients located across state borders. The NP providing collaborative care must be licensed in the state the patient is located and be in collaborative practice with a provider in that state.

Major developments have been made to telehealth reimbursement over the past couple years, and even more since the start of the pandemic it still remains a common stumbling block for providers interested in telemedicine. While telemedicine still has some limitations, many healthcare providers are innovating to solve these issues and improve their patients’ access to quality care.

References

Balestra, M. (2018). Telehealth and Legal Implications for Nurse Practitioners. Journal for Nurse Practitioners, 14 (1), 33-39. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1016/j.nurpra.2017.10.003

Bull, T.P., Dewar, A.R., Malvey, D.M., & Szalm, J.L. (2016). Considerations for the Telehealth Systems of Tomorrow: An Analysis of Student Perceptions of Telehealth Technologies. JMIR medical education, 2(2), e11. https://doi.org/10.2196/mededu.5392

Care Innovations. (n.d.) How Virtual Care Benefits Patients, Clinicians & Healthcare Organizations. [Blog]. Retrieved from : https://news.careinnovations.com/blog/how-virtual-care-benefits-patients-clinicians-healthcare-organizations

Electronic health record implementation

  1. What key information would be needed in the database that would allow you to track opportunities for care improvement?

Electronic health records (EHR) is a tool that has received much attention in the health care industry, particularly because of its capacity to track the opportunities for improving health care through the database feature. To be more precise, the database contained in the EHR contains patient registries that indicate the status of the patient, measures taken and results of the care approaches, as well as any relevant warnings or advices. In fact, the registries contain information on all the patient interactions with the medical facility and personnel (HealthIT, 2019). To maximize its benefits in terms of tracking care improvement opportunities, there is a need for the database to have certain elements as routine features. Benchmark – Electronic Health Record Implementation Paper. The first element is records keepings that makes it possible to track trends across all demographics thus making it possible to monitor care improvement efforts applied as well as inform research into additional improvements. The records should also contain information on how the patients react to the different care approaches and whether the desired objectives were achieved in each care setting. The second element is a clear link between health care approach and outcomes, making use of informatics to support decision making through noting what works to achieve the desired objectives. The final element is the presence of comprehensive indices that collect all the information at a single point and ensure that they are access to the authorized persons thereby supporting inter-professional collaboration and care approaches for the best outcomes (HealthIT, 2019).

  1. What role does informatics play in the ability to capture this data?

Informatics is concerned with organization and analyzing health care information with a focus on extracting the useful aspects and assigning logical meaning to the information. It acknowledges that all interactions between medical facilities and personnel produce cumbersome data, and that deliberate processes are needed to make sense of the data. As such, informatics makes sense of the collected data by assigning value and extracting insight to allow the health care systems to reduce the opportunities for errors while improving the odds of achieving the desired outcomes. In fact, it associates the data variables and develops logical correlations to show associations that can support deliberate care improvement and cost reduction efforts (Saba & McCormick, 2015). Given that informatics makes use of data, then it is not hard to imagine that informatics plays a role in the ability to capture data. In this case, informatics influences the data capture process by identifying the determinants and contextual factors that are relevant to the health care objectives, and considering them as variables (Estiri, Patel & Murphy, 2018). In this respect, informatics influences the ability to capture data by identifying the useful data Benchmark – Electronic Health Record Implementation Paper.

  1. Which systems and staff members would need to be involved in the design and implementation process and team?

System and staff members must be involved in the design and implementation of informatics. The systems in this case include the specific technologies that assist staff members in performing logical functions. To carry out these functions, a variety of systems are required. To begin, clinical decision support systems are required to support primary care delivery through efforts in diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. Prediction algorithms, reminders, and e-tools are among them. Second, personal health records that contain all of the information gathered during patient-medical personnel interactions. Third, telehealth and telemedicine systems that facilitate self-care without exposing patients to unnecessary risks. All systems must support efforts to secure information and ensure that only authorized individuals have access to it. This is consistent with patient confidentiality and autonomy expectations (Demiris & Kneale, 2015). Aside from the mentioned systems, personnel are required to complete the logical health care functions. Their interactions with informatics and knowledge levels are used to identify them. To begin, creators who are proficient in programming and mathematics, such as computer engineers, programmers, and system analysts, can address technical needs. They work on informatics design and development. Second, administrators and operators who operate and manage informatics systems on a daily basis decide how they are used and who has access to them. Trainers, help-desk/support analysts, database administrators, and operators are among them. Third, there are information managers and users who decide how the informatics results will be applied. The information security officer, project manager, function manager, and information officer are among them (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2018).

  1. What professional, ethical, and regulatory standards must be incorporated into the design and implementation of the system?

Informatics systems have implications for professional, regulatory and ethical standards. That is because they make use of protected health information as inputs. To be more precise, there is an inherent expectation for patient information to be protected. However, informatics systems rely on this information thereby presenting concerns that can be potentially preempted through implementing the standards that act as guides to ensure that information security and confidentiality expectations are not violated. These standards have an overlap with the health care practice standards that are already in use in managing all health care information. In fact, regardless of context, there is an expectation of information integrity, non-maleficence, beneficence, justice, equality, confidentiality, and autonomy. In addition, these standards include an expectation of accountability, legitimate infringement, least intrusive alternative, openness, access, security and privacy for all informatics activities (Davis & LaCour, 2014). In addition, the regulatory standards must be observed, particularly the legislation intention to protect patient information. That is because they have legal implications with possibility of judicial intervention and penalties for violations. Examples of the relevant regulatory regulations include the 21st Century Cures Act of 2016, Medicare Access & CHIP (Children’s Health Insurance Program) Reauthorization Act of 2015, Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA) of 2012, Affordable Care Act of 2010, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996, Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act of 2009, and Privacy Act of 1974. Benchmark – Electronic Health Record Implementation Paper. In addition, there is a need to observe the regulations presented by the institutional review boards (IRB), Medicare laws, and patient records confidentiality rules (Hoffman 2017).

  1. How would the EHR team ensure that all order sets are part of the new record?

The EHR team must ensure that all order sets are part of the new record. These occurs by undertaking deliberate steps. Firstly, the new record must be compatible with the old record. If not compatible, then the old record should be reviewed and integrated into the new record so that all the available information is assimilated into one information database. Secondly, the new record should be implemented in a progressive manner so that users familiarize themselves with its use even as data is transferred from the old record into the new record. This step ensures that the new record performs as intended even as kinks are eliminated with continued use (Davis & LaCour, 2014) Benchmark – Electronic Health Record Implementation Paper.

  1. How would you communicate the changes, including any kind of transition plan?

Communicating the changes ensures that all stakeholders are aware of what is taking place, and are well prepared for the change. Successful, efficient and effective can only be achieved through the inclusion of three features. Firstly, ensuring that all the stakeholders are primed to have a shared vision of what the change seeks to address. They must recognize that change is necessary to address an existing problem Benchmark – Electronic Health Record Implementation Paper. Secondly, appointing or assigning effective leadership that has a good understanding of the change and can explain its intentions. This ensures that knowledgeable persons are assigned to lobby for the change and convince other stakeholders to support the change. Thirdly, disturbing the status-quo so that the stakeholders are dissatisfied with the state of affairs and look to the change as a way of achieving a new acceptable status quo (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2018).

  1. What measures and steps would you take to evaluate the success of the EHR implementation from a staff, setting, and patient perspective?

The success of the EHR implementation can be evaluated using two approaches. The first approach is to check if the technical performance of the EHR matches the expectations. In addition, this approach looks at the cost of the implementation and confirms how the actual cost matches to the budgeted costs and whether the implementation wend under or over the budget. The second approach is to engage the stakeholders and collect their perspective on the EHR system. This approach identifies the affected stakeholders, how they were affected, performance evaluation, and whether there is a need for changes (McGonigle & Mastrian, 2018).

  1. What leadership skills and theories would facilitate collaboration with the interprofessional team and provide evidence-based, patient-centered care?

There is a need for leadership between stakeholders to ensure that the best possible care is provided. There are two leadership skills that should be applied. The first skill is supporting co-governance and self-governance so that the stakeholders are encouraged to express their opinions with regards to their expectations. This allows them to point out areas that need improvement, particularly the features that relate to specific disciplines and stakeholder groups. The second skill is applying hierarchical governance that assigns clear authority and responsibility to individuals. In addition to the two skills, leaders should be effective change agents, self-aware, vision, innovation, self-regulation, team building, motivation, strategic planning, decisive, and have integrity. Besides that, they should apply situational leadership theory that requires the leader to always correspond the leadership style to the respective situation through evacuating the relevant variables such as the number of team members, nature of professionals and type of task (Arnold & Boggs, 2019). Benchmark – Electronic Health Record Implementation Paper.

References

Arnold, E. & Boggs, K. (2019). Interpersonal relationships e-book: professional communication skills for nurses (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

Davis, N. & LaCour, M. (2014). Health information technology (3rd ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Demiris, G. & Kneale, L. (2015). Informatics systems and tools to facilitate patient-centered care coordination. Yearbook of Medical Informatics, 10(1), 15-21. DOI: 10.15265/IY-2015-003

Estiri, H., Patel, C. & Murphy, S. (2018). Informatics can help providers incorporate context into care. JAMIA Open, 1(1), 3–6. DOI: 10.1093/jamiaopen/ooy025

HealthIT (2019). What information does an electronic health record (EHR) contain? https://www.healthit.gov/faq/what-information-does-electronic-health-record-ehr-contain

Hoffman, S. (2017). Electronic health records and medical big data: law and policy. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

McGonigle, D., & Mastrian, K. G. (2018). Nursing informatics and the foundation of knowledge (4th ed.). Burlington, MA: Jones and Bartlett Learning.

Saba, V. & McCormick, K. (2015). Essentials of nursing informatics (6th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Benchmark – Electronic Health Record Implementation Paper.

APA Writing Checklist

Use this document as a checklist for each paper you will write throughout your GCU graduate program. Follow specific instructions indicated in the assignment and use this checklist to help ensure correct grammar and APA formatting. Refer to the APA resources available in the GCU Library and Student Success Center.

☐ APA paper template (located in the Student Success Center/Writing Center) is utilized for the correct format of the paper. APA style is applied, and format is correct throughout.

☐  The title page is present. APA format is applied correctly. There are no errors.

☐ The introduction is present. APA format is applied correctly. There are no errors.

☐ Topic is well defined.

☐ Strong thesis statement is included in the introduction of the paper.

☐ The thesis statement is consistently threaded throughout the paper and included in the conclusion.

☐ Paragraph development: Each paragraph has an introductory statement, two or three sentences as the body of the paragraph, and a transition sentence to facilitate the flow of information. The sections of the main body are organized to reflect the main points of the author. APA format is applied correctly. There are no errors.

☐ All sources are cited. APA style and format are correctly applied and are free from error.

☐ Sources are completely and correctly documented on a References page, as appropriate to assignment and APA style, and format is free of error.

Scholarly Resources: Scholarly resources are written with a focus on a specific subject discipline and usually written by an expert in the same subject field. Scholarly resources are written for an academic audience.

Examples of Scholarly Resources include: Academic journals, books written by experts in a field, and formally published encyclopedias and dictionaries.

Peer-Reviewed Journals: Peer-reviewed journals are evaluated prior to publication by experts in the journal’s subject discipline. This process ensures that the articles published within the journal are academically rigorous and meet the required expectations of an article in that subject discipline.

Empirical Journal Article: This type of scholarly resource is a subset of scholarly articles that reports the original finding of an observational or experimental research study. Common aspects found within an empirical article include: literature review, methodology, results, and discussion.

Adapted from “Evaluating Resources: Defining Scholarly Resources,” located in Research Guides in the GCU Library.

☐ The writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English. Utilize writing resources such as Grammarly, LopesWrite report, and ThinkingStorm to check your writing.

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