Evidence-Based Practice Project Proposal PICOT Assignment

Evidence-Based Practice Project Proposal PICOT Assignment NUR 550

Evidence-Based Practice Project Proposal PICOT Assignment

PICOT Draft Name Part 1: Propose a relevant nursing practice problem for an evidence-based practice project. Explain why you selected this topic and how it is relevant to advance nursing practice. Include one research article that demonstrates support for the nursing practice problem. Incomprehensive handing off is one of the major nursing practice problems in the U. S. According to Roslan & Lim (2017), incomprehensive handoff implies communication breakdown during nurse-to-nurse shift change. This topic is chosen because it significantly impacts patients’ safety. It accounts for more than 70% of adverse medical events, and in-hospital deaths (Shahid & Thoman, 2018). The topic is relevant since inaccurate reporting of patient information can lead to medical errors, delay in treatment, and/or the formulation of inappropriate patients’ treatment.

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PICOT (Population/Problem, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome, and Time to achieve the outcome) is a method that helps clarify the qualities needed to create a good question out of a practice issue or problem affecting a population of focus.

The purpose of this assignment is to complete your PICOT for your selected nursing practice problem. Refer to your “Evidence-Based Practice Project Proposal: Identification of Nursing Practice Problem” assignment from Topic 1 to complete this

assignment. If your nursing practice problem or PICOT required revision, include those revisions in this assignment. The final PICOT you develop in this assignment will provide the framework for developing your evidence-based practice project proposal. Use the “PICOT-Final” template to complete this assignment.

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Refer to the “Evidence-Based Practice Project Proposal – Assignment Overview” document for an overview of the evidence-based practice project proposal assignments.

You are required to cite at least four peer-reviewed sources to complete this assignment. Sources must be published within the last 5 years and appropriate for the assignment criteria and nursing content.

While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center. NUR 550 Evidence-Based Practice Project Proposal PICOT Assignment

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

You are not required to submit this assignment to LopesWrite.AttachmentsNUR-550-RS3-EBP PICOT Final.docx

Read Also: Evidence-Based Practice Project Proposal Presentation NUR 590

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The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) established an Institutional Review Board (IRB) to review and monitor human subjects translational research. The IRB is responsible for a variety of tasks, including approving or rejecting research proposals (Nurunnabi, 2014). For example, in order for a study to be approved by the IRB, certain ethical requirements, such as informed consent, scientific validity, fair subject selection, subject respect, and many others, must be met. If the research does not meet IRB requirements, the study may be rejected or the design modified. Furthermore, the IRB has been tasked with training investigators on how to protect human subjects from harm during research (Nurunnabi, 2014). Furthermore, before investigators submit research proposals for funding, the IRB must review the proposals to ensure that ethical principles are followed. Among the ethical research considerations specific to population health are fidelity, nonmaleficence, and beneficence (DeCamp et al., 2018). Fidelity entails an individual’s respect, trust, and autonomy, which the investigator should consider before beginning the research. Non-maleficence implies that the study should not harm human subjects, whereas beneficence implies that the study should act in the patients’ best interests (DeCamp et al., 2018).

Indeed, investigators must ensure that people, potential benefits, and the burden of the research are all respected, and that justice is upheld throughout the translation process. Individuals, for example, should be treated as autonomous subjects with the right to absolute safety. Investigators must ensure that the research is conducted in the best interests of the patients and that the results will benefit population health. Once again, research costs should be reasonable and affordable. Following the research, the research benefits should be distributed fairly and equitably to participants. When an investigator takes all of these factors into account, the research is ethically balanced.

NUR 550 Evidence-Based Practice Project Proposal PICOT Assignment Comparison 10.0% A description of the comparison information is not included. A description of the comparison information is incomplete or incorrect. A description of the comparison information is included but lacks evidence and measurable outcomes. A description of the comparison information is complete and includes sufficient evidence and measurable outcomes. A description of the comparison information is extremely thorough with substantial evidence and measurable outcomes.

Outcome 10.0% A description of the outcome is not included. A description of the outcome is not included. A description of the outcome is included but lacks evidence. A description of the outcome is complete and includes sufficient evidence. A description of the outcome is extremely thorough with substantial evidence. NUR 550 Evidence-Based Practice Project Proposal PICOT Assignment

Timeline 10.0% A description of the timeline is not included. A description of the timeline is incomplete or incorrect. A description of the timeline is included but lacks evidence. A description of the timelines is complete and includes sufficient evidence. A description of the timeline is extremely thorough with substantial evidence.

Problem Statement 20.0% A problem statement is not included. The problem statement is incomplete. The problem statement is generally presented. There are some inaccuracies. More support is needed to justify or rationalize the problem. The problem statement is presented. Adequate support is provided to justify or rationalize the problem. The problem statement concisely describes the issue using strong support to rationalize and justify the problem.

PICOT 20.0% The PICOT statement is omitted. The PICOT statement is incomplete. The PICOT statement is presented but there some inaccuracies. The PICOT statement is presented. Some detail is needed. The PICOT statement concisely and accurately describes the problem.

Required Sources 5.0% Sources are not included. Number of required sources is only partially met. Number of required sources is met, but sources are outdated or inappropriate. Number of required sources is met. Sources are current, but not all sources are appropriate for the assignment criteria and nursing content. Number of required resources is met. Sources are current and appropriate for the assignment criteria and nursing content.

Topic 3 DQ 1

Discuss the ethical guidelines that would need to be implemented when conducting translational research. What are the ethical and legal considerations related to translating research into practice? Discuss what steps you would take as a member of a translational research team in order to establish ethical guidelines for conducting translational research.

Re: Topic 3 DQ 1
There are many ethical considerations when conducting translational research studies. The Health Care Research and Quality Act has developed guidelines to help lessen the risk of ethical issues from occurring. These guidelines include a focus on patient safety, quality of patient care and improving clinical practices while still trying to keep the costs low (DeNisco, 2021). As nurses we have agreed to an ethical duty to do no harm, and this applies just as much to research studies.

One of the biggest ethical considerations with translational research is the patient safety aspect. In my field of oncology, we have numerous clinical trials where we are comparing a new medication to the current standard of care. Although we still need a control arm to really assess the efficacy of the new medication, we hardly ever put the patient on a placebo. We cannot risk the patient who needs therapy right now to be not be given anything at all. That is why the oncology trials usually consist of the control arm with the patients receiving the current standard of care. Often times the trials also have a caveat where if the patient progresses on the standard of care, they can roll over into the other treatment arm which most likely is going to have better efficacy. There are also legal considerations with translational research such as patients informed consent and proper and accurate documentation.

As part of the research team, I would ensure that the research study has met certain core values such a merit and integrity, justice, beneficence, and respect. Merit and integrity will ensure the research is ethically designed. Justice will ensure the trial is equally distributed and diverse. We will weigh the risk versus benefit for beneficence and of course provide the utmost respect to the patients (A Congress Resource for Oncology and Haematology Specialists, 2020).

References

A Congress Resource for Oncology and Haematology Specialists. (2020, March 27). Ethical considerations in clinical trials, and responsibilities of a principal investigator. memoinOncology. Retrieved July 1, 2021, from https://memoinoncology.com/clinical-trials/ethical-considerations-in-clinical-trials-and-responsibilities-of-a-principal-investigator/

DeNisco, S. M. (2021). Advanced Practice Nursing: Essential Knowledge for the Profession (4th ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Re: Topic 3 DQ 1
Hi Kellie! I enjoyed reading your post and agree that oncology patients should not receive placebos given their state of health. I was once involved in a randomized research study as a participant. It actually involved a weight loss drug vs a placebo. As participants, we received detailed information regarding the research study and of course we were required to sign an informed consent and routinely had blood drawn. In addition, we were required to weigh whenever we were scheduled to meet with the researchers or nurses. Unfortunately, I developed a minor health issue and the principal investigator (PI) could not determine whether it was related to the study drug or not, so I had to withdraw from the study. As highlighted by Barrow et al. (2020), research participants have the right to withdraw from a study at any time without being subjected to repercussions.

References

Barrow, J.M., Brannan, G. D. & Khandhar, P. B. (2020). Research Ethics. StatPearls. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK459281/

Topic 3 DQ 2

Discuss the role of the Institutional Review Board. Discuss ethical research considerations specific to population health. How are respect for the persons, potential benefits and burdens of the research, and justice kept in balance? Provide an example.

Re: Topic 3 DQ 2
Listra,

It is notable that the four principles of medical ethics which are justice, nomaleficence, beneficence and autonomy have similarly been used in research projects all along. These principles are important and always act as a guide for clinicians and researchers as well when they are supposed to make decisions. Basically, the principle of non maleficience which states that one should do no harm plays a critical role in both fields (Carrese, et al., 2015). In the research field, this principle guides researchers that they should not subject participants to any harm which is an important guide especially when dealing with humans. This helps ensure that the researcher is fully aware of his research project and also ensures that he or she has carried out enough preparation such as literature review in the research project. Also, the principle of beneficence as you have stated, in research projects should always be focused on; by ensuring that the research findings are meant to benefit the participants. A good example of this is when carrying out research on a certain treatment option. This is one way that can help population health especially in times of a pandemic and they are seeking either treatment option or vaccination.

Reference

Carrese, J. A., Malek, J., Watson, K., Lehmann, L. S., Green, M. J., McCullough, L. B., … & Doukas, D. J. (2015). The essential role of medical ethics education in achieving professionalism: the Romanell Report. Academic Medicine, 90(6), 744-752.

PICOT Final
Name_____________________________________

PICOT Question
P Population School-age children with obesity
Obesity among school-age children has reached epidemic levels in the United States. De Lorenzo et al. (2019) described obesity as significant public health concern since it affects the physical, psychological, and cardiovascular health of the affected populations. Data from 2015-2016 shows that 1 in 5 children in the United States aged 6 to 19 years has obesity, and the rate has tripled since the 1970s (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018). Risk factors include poor eating habits, lack of physical activity, genetics, and negative childhood events. Therefore, immediate, evidence-based, and population-driven interventions are necessary to reduce the surging rates.
I Intervention Educating parents and children
Parents can help to reduce obesity rates by modeling healthy living among children. The outcomes can be improved when children understand the risks and can actively participate in obesity prevention activities. Educating parents and children on the benefits of reducing screen time is a practical nursing intervention since its goal is to promote healthy living by keeping children free from sedentary living. Parents and children should understand the risks that too much screen time poses and the need to be more physically active.
C Comparison No education
The comparison considered is no education for parents and children on the need to minimize screen time and regulation strategies. In this case, parents will apply self-taught strategies or knowledge acquired from social and mainstream media to control obesity. In this case, the difference in outcomes after educating parents and children, if any, would be primarily attributed to the nursing intervention.
O Outcome Reduced obesity rates
Educating parents and children on the implications of too much screen time is expected to be the foundation of behavior change. As a nursing intervention, the education program will improve knowledge on the connection between obesity in children and screen time as a risk factor. Minimizing screen time will lead to a proportional reduction in obesity rates among children, which has become a public health concern since its trend has taken an upward trajectory in the past decade (Skinner et al., 2018). Reducing obesity rates will also improve productivity in children and reduce overall health care costs since obesity is a leading cause of psychological and cardiovascular health problems (Sanyaolu et al., 2019). The overall outcome is creating a healthy populace by reducing obesity rates among school-age children.
T Timeframe Six months
It is possible to achieve the targeted outcome in six months. Parents are expected to start implementing the knowledge acquired immediately, and children are expected to change their behaviors instantly as far as screen time is concerned.
PICOT
Create a complete PICOT statement. In school-age children with obesity (P), can educating parents and children (I) compared to no education (C) reduce obesity rates (O) in six months (T)?
Problem Statement
Create a problem statement for your PICOT. You will use this problem statement throughout your final written paper.
School-age children are a vulnerable population at high risk of obesity. A significant proportion spends a lot of time on screens watching television, gaming, and social interaction, among other ways. Increased screen time is a leading cause of obesity due to intake of too much energy and lack of physical activity (Fang et al., 2019). Obesity puts children at risk of diabetes and cardiovascular, physical, and mental health problems. The increased illness burden increases health care costs and nurses’ workload, and evidence-based interventions are necessary.

References
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018, Sep 18). Obesity. https://www.cdc.gov/healthyschools/obesity/index.htm
De Lorenzo, A., Gratteri, S., Gualtieri, P., Cammarano, A., Bertucci, P., & Di Renzo, L. (2019). Why primary obesity is a disease? Journal of Translational Medicine, 17(1), 1-13. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12967-019-1919-y
Fang, K., Mu, M., Liu, K., & He, Y. (2019). Screen time and childhood overweight/obesity: A systematic review and meta‐analysis. Child: Care, Health and Development, 45(5), 744-753. https://doi.org/10.1111/cch.12701
Sanyaolu, A., Okorie, C., Qi, X., Locke, J., & Rehman, S. (2019). Childhood and adolescent obesity in the United States: A public health concern. Global Pediatric Health, 6, 2333794X19891305. https://doi.org/10.1177/2333794X19891305
Skinner, A. C., Ravanbakht, S. N., Skelton, J. A., Perrin, E. M., & Armstrong, S. C. (2018). Prevalence of obesity and severe obesity in US children, 1999–2016. Pediatrics, 141(3). https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2017-3459

Re: Topic 3 DQ 2

Under FDA regulations, an Institutional Review Board is group that has been formally designated to review and monitor biomedical research involving human subjects. The purpose of IRB review is to assure, both in advance and by periodic review, that appropriate steps are taken to protect the rights and welfare of humans participating as subjects in the research. To accomplish this purpose, IRBs use a group process to review research protocols and related materials (e.g., informed consent documents and investigator brochures) to ensure protection of the rights and welfare of human subjects of research (FDA, n.d).

From a public health perspective, it is important to recognize an ethical standard that respects community autonomy. This standard can be achieved by requiring community collaboration (ie, at a minimum, establishing a community advisory board) to protect against exploiting vulnerable populations, to ensure fair terms of cooperation, to ratify that the interventions to be tested are acceptable to community members, and to minimize potential misunderstandings about the research. Such community advisory boards should have responsibility for determining whether the research goals are valuable to local community members and the methods are acceptable before the research is allowed to proceed (Buchanan & Miller, 2006).

In this era of translational research, social injustice is one of the crucial ethical concerns. Resource-rich countries conducting translational medical research in resource-poor countries are common and if the results of the research are not expected to be beneficial/less beneficial to the resource-poor country, then arises the issue of social injustice and disparity. Examples include research undertaken on diseases that are rare or the resulting intervention/product is too expensive to implement, in developing countries (Mandal et al., 2017).

References

Buchanan, D. R., & Miller, F. G. (2006). A public health perspective on research ethics. Journal of medical ethics32(12), 729–733. https://doi.org/10.1136/jme.2006.015891

Mandal, J., Ponnambath, D. K., & Parija, S. C. (2017). Ethics of translational medical research. Tropical parasitology7(2), 62–64. https://doi.org/10.4103/tp.TP_47_17

FDA (n.d). Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) and Protection of Human Subjects in Clinical Trials. Retrieved from https://www.fda.gov/about-fda/center-drug-evaluation-and-research-cder/institutional-review-boards-irbs-and-protection-human-subjects-clinical-trials

Translational Research Graphic Organizer State the nursing practice problem for your evidence-based practice project. If your nursing problem has not yet been approved, make any required changes or revisions to your nursing practice problem prior to starting the assignment. Using your proposed topic, conduct a literature search and complete the tables below. Nursing Practice Problem: The problem that this project seeks to address is the incomprehensive hand-off during nurse change-overs. Roslan & Lim (2017) characterized the problem as the communication breakdown that happens during nurse-to-nurse change-overs. The problem arises because nurses use ineffective handover practices that increase the risks of miscommunication. For example, nurses practice bedside handovers whereby information is verbally shared between off-shift and incoming nurses (Fealy et al, 2018). There is also no structured procedure, framework, and/or checklist used to conduct handovers (Fealy et al, 2018). As a result, inaccurate, incomplete, and misleading information is transferred. This is a significant problem because it increases the risks of medical errors thus compromising patient safety. Comparison 1: Translational Research vs. Qualitative Research Criter ia Peer-Reviewed Translational Peer-Reviewed Traditional Article and Article and Permalink/Working Permalink/Working Link: Link: Fealy, G., Donelly, S., Doyle, G., Brenner, M., Patterson, A., McIntire, E., Hughes, M, Mylotte, E.,…Ziki, M. (2018). Beecroft, N., Happ, M, MoffatClinical handover practices among healthcare Bruce, S. (2019).Nursing practitioners in acute care services: A qualitative Handovers in Critical Care: A study. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 28(2), 1-9. Retrospective Analysis of https://www.researchgate.net/profile/MaryInformation Content and HughesFunction. Proceedings of the 12/publication/326954892_Clinical_handover_pr International Symposium on © 2021. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved. Observations (Similarities/Differences) Human Factors and Ergonomics in Health Care 8(1), 4-8. actices_among_healthcare_practitioners_in_acute _care_services_A_qualitative_study/links/5bed4a 174585150b2bb7a768/Clinical-handoverpractices-among-healthcare-practitioners-inacute-care-services-A-qualitative-study.pdf https://www.researchgate.net/prof ile/Emily-Patterson15/publication/335838980_Nursi ng_Handovers_in_Critical_Care_ Traditional Qualitative Research Type: A_Retrospective_Analysis_of_Inf Descriptive study. ormation_Content_and_Function/ links/5da123cc299bf116fe9ed67f/ Nursing-Handovers-in-CriticalCare-A-Retrospective-Analysisof-Information-Content-andFunction.pdf Translational Research Type: Descriptive study. Metho The study adopted a descriptive dology design. Qualitative data obtained from previously conducted experiments were subjected to emergent theme analysis (Patterson et al, 2019). The study adopted a qualitative-descriptive design The two studies are similar in the (Fealy et al, 2018). Qualitative data were used to sense that they employed describe existing handover practices. The content qualitative data and techniques. analysis method was used to analyze research data. Both of them also employ a descriptive approach. © 2021. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved. Goals The goal is to establish the right contents for inclusion in electronic handover reports (Patterson et al, 2019). The goal is also to establish the most effective format and designs for electronic handover reports. To assess nursing handover practices (Fealy et al, Goals are similar in the sense that 2018). The goal is also to determine the factors they both address the effectiveness that influence the effectiveness of handover of handover practices. practices. The translational study, however, has a more pragmatic goal. It addresses a practical question/problem, that is, how to present handover information appropriately. For traditional research, the goal addresses a theoretical problem. Data Collec tion Data were collected from 20 reports on previous experimental studies. Handover information relating to 20 patients was used to establish the most important contents of a handover report. Data about the current handover practices were collected using focused group discussions and interviews. Data were obtained from 116 practitioners working in rural and urban hospitals (Fealy et al, 2018). © 2021. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved. While the traditional research article relied on primary data sources, the translational research article utilized secondary data. The other difference is that the translational study incorporated data about patients while the traditional research article relied exclusively on expert information from nurse practitioners. Comparison 2: Translational Research vs. Quantitative Research Criteri a Peer-Reviewed Translational Article and Permalink/Working Link: Lee, S., Atrkinson, E., Minaerd, G., Obrien, A. (2018). Electronic tool helps anesthesia trainee handovers. The Clinical Teacher, 15, 1-6. https://booksc.org/book/ 68537697/f393a5 Peer-Reviewed Traditional Article and Permalink/Working Link: Observations (Similarities/Differences) Delardes, B., McLeod, L., & Chakraborty, S. (2020). What is the effect of electronic clinical handovers on patient outcomes: A systematic review. Health Informatics Journal, 1-12. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/fu ll/10.1177/1460458220905162 Translational Research Type: Applied Research Traditional Quantitative Research Type: Basic research Methodology An experimental design was adopted. Trainee nurses were observed giving intraoperative handovers with a checklist and then without a checklist (Lee et al, 2018). The study adopted a quantitative approach. Numerical data from previous experimental studies were subjected to quantitative analysis to establish the impacts of electronic handover. Both adopted a quantitative approach. The difference is that translational research used an experimental design while traditional research relied on data obtained from past experimental studies. © 2021. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved. Goals Data Collection The goal is to develop a standardized electronic handover (Lee et al, 2018). This would help overcome the challenge of incomplete handover information during shift change-overs. The goal of the study is to compare different electronic handover methods in terms of their effectiveness (Delardes, McLeod & Chakraborty, 2020). Both studies aim at improving the effectiveness of handover practices. Data for the study was collected using the observation method. The trainee nurses were observed while experimenting with handover checklists. Data about the impact of electronic handover methods on outcomes such as risks of adverse events, time to procedure, and handover completeness were obtained from reputable electronic databases from which the reviewed articles were obtained include Embase, MEDLINE, and Scopus. The main difference is that the translational research article relied on primary data while secondary data was relied upon in the traditional research article. The difference is that the translational study aimed at producing a tangible solution in the form of a useful handover checklist that can be used in a nursing environment. On the other hand, the traditional research article intends to create theoretical knowledge on effective handover practices. © 2021. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved. © 2021. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved. References Delardes, B., McLeod, L., & Chakraborty, S. (2020). What is the effect of electronic clinical handovers on patient outcomes: A systematic review. Health Informatics Journal, 1-12. Fealy, G., Donelly, S., Doyle, G., Brenner, M., Hughes, M, Mylotte, E.,…Ziki, M. (2018). Clinical handover practices among healthcare practitioners in acute care services: A qualitative study. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 28(2), 1-9. Lee, S., Atrkinson, E., Minaerd, G., Obrien, A. (2018). Electronic tool helps anesthesia trainee handovers. The Clinical Teacher, 15, 16. https://booksc.org/book/68537697/f393a5 Patterson, A., McIntire, E., Beecroft, N., Happ, M, Moffat-Bruce, S. (2019).Nursing Handovers in Critical Care: A Retrospective Analysis of Information Content and Function. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Human Factors and Ergonomics in Health Care, 8(1), 4-8. Roslan, B., & Lim, L. (2017). Nurses’ perceptions of bedside clinical handover in a medical-surgical unit: An interpretive descriptive study. Proceedings of Singapore Healthcare, 26(3), 150–157. © 2021. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved. PICOT Draft Name__Wendy Fernandez __ Part 1: Propose a relevant nursing practice problem for an evidence-based practice project. Explain why you selected this topic and how it is relevant to advance nursing practice. Include one research article that demonstrates support for the nursing practice problem. Incomprehensive handing off is one of the major nursing practice problems in the U. S. According to Roslan & Lim (2017), incomprehensive handoff implies communication breakdown during nurse-to-nurse shift change. This topic is chosen because it significantly impacts patients’ safety. It accounts for more than 70% of adverse medical events, and in-hospital deaths (Shahid & Thoman, 2018). The topic is relevant since inaccurate reporting of patient information can lead to medical errors, delay in treatment, and/or the formulation of inappropriate patients’ treatment plans. Part II: In the table below, describe the population and the intervention. (You will continue drafting the PICOT, completing the shaded areas in Topic 3.) PICOT Question P I C Population Can the use of electronic handovers and structured communication tools reduce in-hospital mortality, within one year, for the population of inpatientn individuals diagnosed with heart disease? Patients admitted to hospitals with heart disease are the population of focus for this evidencebased project. Heart disease accounts for the highest number of hospital admissions, and deaths in the U. S. According to Heron (2021), heart disease accounts for 24% of all the deaths in the U. S. Deaths due to heart disease are also highest among non-Hispanic whites and non-Hispanic blacks (Heron, 2021). These findings seek to show that incomprehensive handoff affects heart disease patients the most. The proposed intervention is to introduce electronic handovers, and structured communication tools as mandatory requirements in clinical environments. A study by Delardes, McLeod & Chakraborty (2020) established that electronic handovers have the potential of improving the accuracy of nurse-to-nurse communications, and reducing delays in the Intervention provision of critical care. A structured communication tool would ensure that detailed, and complete patient information is shared between nurses, thus reducing the occurrence of medical errors, and/or the formulation of ineffective treatment plans. Comparison © 2021. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved. O Outcome T Timeframe PICOT Problem Statement © 2021. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved. References Delardes, B., McLeod, L., & Chakraborty, S. (2020). What is the effect of electronic clinical handovers on patient outcomes: A systematic review. Health Informatics Journal, 1-12. Heron, M. (2021). Deaths: Leading Causes for 2018. National Vital Statistics Reports, 70 (4), 1-65, Roslan, B., & Lim, L. (2017). Nurses’ perceptions of bedside clinical handover in a medical-surgical unit: An interpretive descriptive study. Proceedings of Singapore Healthcare, 26(3), 150–157. Shahid, S., & Thomas, S. (2018). Situation, Background, Assessment, Recommendation (SBAR) Communication Tool for Handoff in Health Care – A Narrative Review. Saf Health, 4, 7. © 2021. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved. PICOT Draft Name_____________________________________ Part 1: Propose a relevant nursing practice problem for an evidence-based practice project. Explain why you selected this topic and how it is relevant to advance nursing practice. Include one research article that demonstrates support for the nursing practice problem. Part II: In the table below, describe the population and the intervention. (You will continue drafting the PICOT, completing the shaded areas in Topic 3.) PICOT Question P Population I Intervention C Comparison O Outcome T Timeframe PICOT Problem Statement © 2021. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved.

APA Writing Checklist

Use this document as a checklist for each paper you will write throughout your GCU graduate program. Follow specific instructions indicated in the assignment and use this checklist to help ensure correct grammar and APA formatting. Refer to the APA resources available in the GCU Library and Student Success Center.

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Scholarly Resources: Scholarly resources are written with a focus on a specific subject discipline and usually written by an expert in the same subject field. Scholarly resources are written for an academic audience.

Examples of Scholarly Resources include: Academic journals, books written by experts in a field, and formally published encyclopedias and dictionaries.

Peer-Reviewed Journals: Peer-reviewed journals are evaluated prior to publication by experts in the journal’s subject discipline. This process ensures that the articles published within the journal are academically rigorous and meet the required expectations of an article in that subject discipline.

Empirical Journal Article: This type of scholarly resource is a subset of scholarly articles that reports the original finding of an observational or experimental research study. Common aspects found within an empirical article include: literature review, methodology, results, and discussion.

Adapted from “Evaluating Resources: Defining Scholarly Resources,” located in Research Guides in the GCU Library.

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